Texts that brought down a killer
THEY say our texting habits reveal a lot about our personalities.
Studies have found ending a sentence with a full stop can make you look insincere or passive-aggressive.
Likewise, sending a series of rapid short texts might make you look desperate or overly earnest.
But a famous British murder case has revealed how our texting styles - right down to a single punctuation mark - can be used to catch out criminals.
A 'BRUTAL AND SADISTIC' MURDER
In July 2013, David Ryan was found guilty of murdering his lover and mutilating her body to cover his tracks.
The now 53-year-old, from Atrincham in Britain, killed Diana Lee, the owner of a "luxury cattery" who was six years his senior, at her Cheshire home in August 2012.
The pair had a relationship in the two years prior to her murder. Ryan never told Lee he had a wife.
Early into their relationship, he started pressing Ms Lee for money, convincing her to invest with him in a bogus business.
Over the course of their relationship, she withdrew £70,000 (A$123,000) from various accounts, giving £60,000 ($A105,000) to Ryan.
He spent the stolen cash on IVF treatment for his wife, and a list of luxuries for himself including a laptop, a puppy, Armani clothes and new luggage.
But when Lee started asking questions about where the money was going, Ryan decided to end her life.
The woman was last seen alive on the evening of August 8, 2012 when she had dinner with a group of friends at a nearby Chinese restaurant, the Daily Mail reported.
She later went to meet Ryan nearby before driving him back to her home.
The pair had sex, after which Lee was attacked with a blunt instrument in the bathroom.
He then dragged her body to the garage, and set four fires around the house in an attempt to destroy the DNA evidence and cover his tracks.
But due to a lack of oxygen in the garage, the fire failed to spread properly and destroy all the evidence as he'd intended.
Firefighters found remains of the woman's naked body in a wheelbarrow after they were called to attend the blaze.
It later emerged that Ryan had also tried to "frame" the victim's lodger, Andrew Leese, by planting her underwear in his room and dipping his antique German dagger in her blood.
He may have gotten away with it - if it hadn't been for the hoax text messages he sent to some of Lee's clients right after killing her.
TEXT MESSAGES THAT CONFIRMED THE KILLER
Text messages sent from Lee's phone at the time of her murder played an important role in determining Ryan's guilt.
In his latest book, More Wordcrime, leading forensic linguist John Olsson explains how an analysis of these texts revealed Ryan as the woman's killer.
During his clean-up attempt, he sent messages from the victim's phone to clients who were scheduled to visit the woman, telling them to stay away from the crime scene, The Times reported.
But the messages were inconsistent with her usual method of texting. In particular, they featured two spaces after full stops and question marks, and no space after commas.
This was, however, in line with Ryan's style of texting.
When police confronted Ryan, he initially denied their relationship, but later admitted they had sex on the night of her disappearance.
He denied killing her, saying he was watching television at the time of her death.
But authorities found a large amount of evidence against him: the bloodied footprints in her home matched the shoe brand worn by the defendant; his DNA was found on her body; and, of course, there were the text messages.
The linguistic investigator's evidence helped to convict the killer, and the real story came out in court.
According to British media reports, Mr Justice Henriques said Ryan had a history of borrowing cash from people with "no intention" of paying it back. The court heard he was bankrupt and had racked up £90,000 (A$158,000) in debts.
"You literally bled her dry," the judge said of Ryan's relationship with Lee.
"You suffer from the toxic combination of being work-shy and grossly extravagant. Your extravagance knew no bounds. As your friend said, you bought only the best, and then you met Diana Lee."
The judge said Ryan decided to kill the woman when she started questions about what happened to the woman.
"You killed Diana Lee to prevent your spectacular fraud upon her coming to light."
Assistant Chief Constable Ruth Purdie said Ryan tricked the woman into giving him money to pay off his debts, the BBC reported.
"We have been left in little doubt that Ryan's attack on Diana - a diminutive and gentle lady - was brutal and sadistic," Constable Purdie said.
"He showed contempt and compounded his disregard for her when he did his utmost to remove DNA evidence and then destroy her body," she said.
"He concocted a web of lies and brutally murdered a woman who had done nothing more than fall for the charm of a conman."
Ryan was jailed for 34 years.